Articles

Gas industry

Automation of engineering process and monitoring development of hydrocarbon deposits

Konstantin S. Kholodnov, Nikolay N. Nikolaev, Aleksandr S. Samoylov, Sergey V. Skvortsov, Yuriy A. Dolgikh, Dmitriy G. Fateev

In the current time, the geological and technological model is the main tool for forecasting the indices of developing hydrocarbon deposits. To ensure the required accuracy of calculations, the updating and adaptation of the model to the historical development data are carried out constantly taking into account the large volumes of incoming data. The purpose of this work is to create and implement algorithms that allow to automate certain tasks of the process of designing and maintaining the development of hydrocarbon deposits. The formed approach provides accumulation, structuring and operational analysis of geological and commercial information that allows to improve the quality of adaptation of the flow model, to increase the accuracy of making managerial decisions during the development of hydrocarbon fi ds and engineering processes.

optimization development of deposits history matching software

Exploration well as a perspective element of the development system of a new field

Yuriy P. Pelivanov, Ruslan F. Sharafutdinov, Viktor P. Tyurin, Nikolay N. Nikolayev, Yuriy A. Dolgikh

Abstract The authors' proposals on the use of exploratory wells for the purpose of reducing risks while drilling production wells, substantiating optimal completions and technological regimes during the industrial development of the field are presented. Operational accounting obtained from the results of trial exploitation of exploratory wells of materials, as part of the development of design and technical documentation for the development, will reduce the uncertainty and speed up the process of preparing the field for industrial development. Materials and methods Based on the results of the analysis of the regulatory framework of Russia, recommendations are presented for minimizing risks in the development of new deposits through the use of exploratory wells. Results The use of exploratory wells is proposed for the purpose of reducing risks in the subsequent drilling of production wells, justifying optimal completions and technological regimes during the pilot-industrial and industrial development of the fi d. Conclusions Designing of exploratory wells taking into account the possibility of approbation of new construction technologies, completions, intensifi ation of infl w, telemetry and telemechanics means allows solving a wide range of tasks aimed at minimizing risks during drilling and operation of wells for the period of industrial development. In addition, exploratory wells after trial operation, bypassing the liquidation procedure, can be integrated into the fi d development system both as operational ones and as further exploration of the deposits.

trial operation risk reduction industrial development of the field exploratory wells

Geology

Relationship of biogenic and deep processes on the data of the analysis of oil trace element composition

S.A. Punanova, M.V. Rodkin

The results of an analysis of the trace element composition of oil in a number of oil-bearing basins, so-called young oils, other caustobiolytes, organic matter and the average composition of the Earth's crust are briefly reviewed. Quantitatively, the tightness of the trace element composition of various oils with the chemical composition of possible sources of trace element in petroleum was compared. The obtained results testify to the model in which the dominant source of trace elements in oils is an organic matter with the fundamentally important role in the naftidogenesis of the ascending flows of the lower crustal fluids.

trace element composition of oils correlation value difference in TE composition of typical and young oils deep fluid

Effeiciency increase of prospecting surveys by complex geological irregularities analysis of reef deposits of frasnian-famenian age and their cap rocks

Anastasia O. Vyazovkina, Vladimir V. Gusev

Recently, the need to increase the accuracy of the forecast of reliable caprocks significantly increased during exploration work on the search for new oil deposits for carbonate deposits. The article considers geological-geophysical criteria of organogenic buildups allocation and caprocks of organogenic type deposits allocation. On the basis of the data of deep drilling the stratification section of Frasnian- Tournaisian deposits was carried out. Conditions of Frasnian-Fammenian biogerm bodies formation and tires are analyzed. A series of correlation schemes intersecting different zones (onboard, external, internal and axial) Muchanovo- Erohovsky deflection and a map of sediment thickness Malevsky horizon were constructed. As a result, the map of prospects of searches of deposits, timed to traps of reefogenic type concerning reliability of a caprock with the put constructions revealed as a result of seismic works is drawn up.

reefs caprocks geological exploration seismic survey non-anticlinal tr

Geophysics

The application of the method of controlled scratching to study the mechanical properties of rocks

A.V. Nosikov, K.V. Toropetsky, B.O. Mikhailov, P.S. Chernysh, A.A. Doroshenko, G.A. Borisov

The article shows a method for the continuous determination of the elasticstrength properties of rocks by the method of controlled scratching. The created installation allows obtaining information about the resistance to displacement of the indenter, scratching on cylindrical samples of synthetic and natural materials (cores). The developed technique allows to recalculate the values of force obtained by setting the strength of the tensile strength with unlimited uniaxial compression.

full-size core scratch test controlled scratching method elastic-strength characteristics profile

Integration of electromagnetic and seismic survey data at all stages of geological exploration: from the prospecting stage to the development of hydrocarbon fields

Igor V. Buddo, Alexander S. Smirnov, Natalya V. Misyurkeeva, Ivan A. Shelohov, Alexander V. Pospeev, Viacheslav V. Kas'yanov, Yuri A. Agafonov

The article describes the importance of improving existing and developing new technologies for joint interpretation of geophysical methods aimed at prospecting and exploration of hydrocarbon fields. The potential of seismic prospecting and electromagnetic exploration by transient electromagnetic method in the near field zone (TEM) in solving oil and gas exploration problems in Western Siberia are considered. Regarding to seismic prospecting, the possibility of analyzing scattered waves for the prediction of fracture and cavernousness zones is considered in detail. Conducting TEM survey makes it possible to clarify the contours of hydrocarbon fields identified by seismic prospecting. Based on drilling data, petrophysical studies and reservoir capacitance characteristics (by seismic survey), it is possible to proceed to the saturation type prediction - to determine the water saturation value. It is shown that the results obtained by integrating seismic and electromagnetic surveys make it possible to significantly increase the detail and reliability of the survey area geological model at all stages of geological exploration: from prospecting to the development and exploitation stage of hydrocarbon fields.

integration seismic survey scattered waves electromagnetic survey saturation type

Oil production

Reducing the effect of free gas on the operation of pumping equipment

Svetlana B. Kolesova, Amdakh M. Nasyrov, Mikhail B. Polozov

In modern conditions, the share of lowyield oil deposits with low-permeability reservoirs increases among the newly introduced fi ds. Such deposits, as a rule, are exploited with low bottomhole pressures in wells and worsened performance of pumping equipment due to the infl e of free gas. Reduction of the negative eff of free gas on the pump is achieved in various ways in each case. One of the optimal methods is the use of shanks with elongated intake fi ers. The paper describes a number of other technological and technical methods for reducing the harmful eff of free gas on the operation of pumping equipment.

free gas pumping equipment low bottomhole pressure low pump feed rate shank with an extended intake filter

Heatrise calculation of well

Alexander V. Volovodov

Temperature signifi antly infl es the operation of submersible downhole equipment and can lead to failure due to overheating, salt and paraffi deposits on the equipment. To prevent complications, it is necessary to correctly predict and choose safe thermic modes. The article considers the model of heat exchange between the equipment and well nodes, which allows calculating the temperature and predicting the thermic mode of the well. The model can be used for selection, analysis and monitoring, in the algorithms of a switchboard.

heat transfer complicating factor calculation of the thermic mode of the well heat equation temperature mode

Experience of a long stroke deep well pumping unit operation for hard to recover oil reserves production

Rustem S. Takhautdinov, Rashit M. Akhunov, Mikhail V. Kochubey, Yurij K. Denisov

A number of factors adversely aff the operation of the commercially available oil well pumping units, especially in wells with high viscosity production, which requires development of a high performance installation, in particular for such oil wells. The adverse eff of a part of these factors decreases with the increasing stroke length of the plunger. The stroke length of the previously designed installations ranges from one to hundreds of meters. Based on the conducted experiments, the optimal acceptable stroke length has been determined for the developed Long Stroke Deep Well Pumping Unit DGNU-2-2.5. where the traction element for the string of rods is a round-link chain, which is attached to a chainwheel performing bidirectional rotation. The designed equipment provides the following: smooth adjustment of the length and speed of the plunger's up and down movement in accordance with production capabilities of the well, remote monitoring, saving and changing of parameters, protection against exceeding the set parameters, etc. DGNU-2-2.5 unit is certifi its commercial manufacturing has been launched, and it has been implemented on 35 wells in various oilfi ds so far.

complicated conditions long stroke deep well pumping unit traction motor drive motor control station

Corrosion

Development of a corrosion monitoring system at the facilities of the second area of the Achimov deposits of the Urengoy oil, gas and condensate field

Aleksandr Y. Koryakin, Dmitriy V. Dikamov, Vladimir F. Kobychev, Igor V. Kolinchenko, Aleksandr D. Yusupov

Abstract A large number of companies developing new gas condensate fields have faced the problem of carbon dioxide corrosion. The same occurs at the facilities of the second area of the Achimov deposits of Urengoy oil, gas and condensate field. Because of the lack of design solutions in terms of anticorrosive measures, specialists of Gazprom dobycha Urengoy LLC developed a system that includes several methods of corrosion monitoring. The article presents a scheme of monitoring of facilities exposed to carbon dioxide corrosion. All the implemented methods are described, and the results of the control are given. Materials and methods Gravimetric method of corrosion rate measurement, a method of corrosion rate measurement by measuring electrical resistance Results Each of the corrosion monitoring methods presented in this article separately does not cover all the relevant factors. The principle of superposition allows us to expand the boundaries of each corrosion monitoring method. The set of all applied methods allows safety operation of hazardous production facilities exposed to carbon dioxide corrosion. The corrosion monitoring system developed and introduced into production has shown its effectiveness for three years of constant operation and modernization. Continuous improvement of the methods included in the corrosion monitoring system allows continuous reducing of possible risk level of emergencies caused by a corrosive damage. Conclusions During the development and implementation of the corrosion monitoring system at the facilities of the second area of the Achimov deposits of the Urengoy oil, gas and condensate field, the following activities were implemented: 1. New gravimetric devices were developed and special locations for their installation were selected for infrastructure facilities of the gas condensate treatment plant developing Achimov deposits. 2. For the fi st time a measurement system of carbon dioxide corrosion rate in a gas-condensate medium by measuring the electrical resistance of the contact element installed in the pipeline (ER method).was tested at facilities of Gazprom dobycha Urengoy LLC. 3. The complex monitoring of parameters infl ing the intensity of carbon dioxide corrosion is organized: CO2 content, chemical composition of water, residual content of corrosion inhibitor, iron content in water, etc. 4. The main factors infl ing the rate of carbon dioxide corrosion under fi d conditions during the development of Achimov deposits were revealed. 5. A technology using a set of nondestructive methods of testing was developed for corrosion- prone areas subjected to maximum corrosion. 6. The concept of conducting an inspection of pipelines and equipment was revised. When planning, the intensity of corrosion was taken into account with allowance for the rates of corrosion obtained by gravimetric studies.

corrosion monitoring corrosion monitoring system carbon dioxide corrosion corrosion control unit Achimov deposits

Oil refining

Features of coke formation on organically modified zeolite catalysts of oil refining

Elena A. Zelenskaya, Tatiana V. Zelenskaya, Aleksandra A. Ladenko

Abstract In this paper, we propose one of the ways to increase the octane number of gasolines using organically modified catalysts as contacts of the upgrading process. Materials and methods The sample FeЦВК (silicate module 35, Fe3+ 0.2%; sample FeMnЦВК (silicate module 35, 0.2% Fe3+ and Mn2+) Results In the course of the research it was found that additional modification of the initial samples of organically modified zeolite- containing catalysts with iron and manganese reduces the rate of coke formation during the refinement of straight-run gasoline fractions. Conclusions The rate of coke formation increases with the increase in the silicate module of the zeolite. Iron applied to the catalyst in a small amount helps suppress the compaction and coking reactions, prolonging the eff e life of the organically modifi zeolite catalyst.

refinement octane number catalyst alkylation isomerization

Upgrading oil, water and gas separation technology and equipment at distant oil production facilities

Il'mer Yu. Khasanov, Vladimir I. Rogozin, Dmitriy V. Ivanov

New upgrading oil, water and gas separation technology and equipment are proposed. The novelty of the technology is in partial degassing of the NGL in the heater-treater and returning of its liquid part to the highly stabilized commercial oil pipeline to restore its petrol potential and maintain the oil-gas condensate mixture SVP at the standard level. The separator is integrated into the operating gas processing plant layout.

oil gas separation stabilization saturation pressure last stage of oil separation

Pipeline

A study of the thermal zones in the repair of corrosion damage to the external surfaces of pipelines welding

Sergey I. Sentsov, Vasily A. Rybin, Sergei A. Nikulin

The study was carried out to study the temperature gradient distribution in the cross section of the oil pipeline wall section during the repair of corrosion damage to the outer surface of oil pipelines by welding. As a result of the studies it was found that in a certain range of values of linear energy in the heated section of the pipe wall it is possible to obtain a zone of guaranteed strength properties, the metal in which has a margin of temporary resistance to rupture. Also, the dependence describing the temperature change of the inner surface of the pipe wall at different values of the linear energy and the residual thickness in the repair area by welding is obtained.

pipelines welding heat input heat repairy

Probabilistic approach to the evaluation of the strength of temperature-deformable sections of underground pipelines

Sergey Golofast, Sergey Shockiy

Abstract The paper presents the results of calculating the stresses in the wall of an underground pipeline loaded with single weight in the angles of rotation on convex sections of the pipeline. Taking into account the random nature of the excess internal pressure p, the sample of the actual values of which were obtained at the pipeline operation stage, the strength of the curved sections of the main pipeline was evaluated. The necessity of individual selection of the weight of a single weight for each section of the pipeline is justified taking into account the specific law of distribution and the limits of dispersion of internal pressure in this section. Materials and methods Calculation of stresses in the pipeline and verifi ation of the fulfi lment of the strength condition of the loaded curvilinear section of main pipeline was carried out on the basis of construction norms and rules (SNiP 2.05.06-85 * Trunk pipelines). Evaluation of the strength of curvilinear sections of main pipelines in the probabilistic aspect is performed on the basis of processing random variables using methods of probability theory and nonparametric statistics. Results The implementation of the probabilistic approach made it possible to estimate the strength of the pipeline based on the actual initial data, which are of a random nature and the distribution laws specific for each section of the pipeline. The presented approach allows to provide individual selection of single weight for each of curvilinear sites at repair or reconstruction taking into account specificity of the external loading acting on the pipeline at a stage of its operation Conclusions 1. Selection of the weight of a single weight placed directly at the top of the angle of rotation of the curvilinear main pipeline section ensures a reduction in the magnitude of the maximum longitudinal stresses arising in the pipeline wall to a standard level. 2. The considered approach to the evaluation of the strength of main pipeline allows to calculate the stresses of the loaded sections of underground pipelines and justify the choice of the weight of a single cargo, taking into account the random nature of the excess internal pressure p. 3. Due to the random nature of the excess internal pressure p, the choice of the weight of the loads that ensure the fulfi lment of the strength condition for the curvilinear sections of the main pipeline must be carried out taking into account the dispersion limits and the distribution laws for the random variable p, which are individual for each of the sections. 4. Accumulated in the process of monitoring of technological parameters during the operation phase of the main pipeline, information on the values of the excess internal pressure and the limits of its change for each linear section makes it possible, based on the approach considered, to clarify the weight or to change the arrangement of the supplies at the stage of reconstruction or repair of the linear part.

main pipeline line section axial s

Pipes

Research Barkhausen noise method for study of hardened drill pipe thread

Mikhail V. Pesin

The article is devoted to the definition of control method of Barkhausen hardened drill pipe thread. In this case, the method for hardening of constructional alloy steel is high quality surface plastic deformation deep rolling. It is particularly important that the study done non-destructive method to get data about a toughened surface layer.

hardening deep roll thread residual stresses surface plastic deformation method of Barkhausen

Electrical engineering

Technical condition assessment of power transformer windings after impact of short-circuit current

Viktor I. Zavidey, Vasiliy S. Larin, Aleksey Yu. Volkov, Sergey A. Drobyshevskiy

Abstract In the article the issues of technical diagnostics of power transformers windings are considered. Results of windings condition assessment using impedance measurements, frequency-response analysis and fi ed-frequency phase parameters measurement are presented. It is noted that the method for winding condition assessment based on phase-parameters measurement has potential for application on-site due to the rapidity of analysis, simplicity and availability of numeric criterion. Materials and methods Power transformers and methods for its condition assessment. Results Assessment of transformer winding fault was conducted using frequency and phase analysis. Conclusions To evaluate mechanical and electrical condition of the transformer windings, it is advisable to use frequency response analysis (FRA) along with traditional measurement of short-circuit impedance. The possibility of quick condition assessment of the windings using the method based on comparison of currents ratio at selected frequencies is shown. Also it is shown that phase method based on comparison of phase angle between winding current and voltage at the fi ed frequencies has suffi iently high sensitivity to winding deformation and faults.

Transformers diagnosis of defects winding frequency responses frequency-response analysis phase parameters